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Section 2 - Profile of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (UIR)

1 - Brief History

The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) is composed of members of the Cayuse, Umatilla and Walla Walla Indian Tribes. These three tribes have intermingled economically, socially, and in language, to the point that tribal distinctions are less pronounced. The Walla Walla Treaty of 1855 was negotiated at Fort Walla Walla between the government and the three tribes. The Treaty contained 11 articles and established the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

Rather than accept the provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the tribes adopted a written Constitution and By -Laws which were approved by the Secretary of the Interior on December 7, 1949. This Constitution established the present tribal government .

2 - Location

The Umatilla Indian Reservation (UIR) is located in Umatilla County, Oregon. It borders the jurisdictions of Umatilla County, the city of Pendleton and federal lands managed by the Umatilla National Forest. Other cities in close proximity to the UIR are Adams, Athena, Weston, and Pilot Rock. The reservation is situated primarily within the Umatilla River Basin and the Blue Mountains. The tribal headquarters is located in community of Mission. Both the Umatilla River and Interstate 84 run through the reservation. Three much smaller communities, located on the reservation are Cayuse, Thornhollow and Gibbon. These communities are also located on the Umatilla River upriver from Mission.

3 - Climate and Geography

Umatilla County has a semi-arid climate. Under normal conditions, moderate air masses from the Pacific Ocean move across the Cascades or through the Columbia Gorge resulting in mild temperatures in the Pendleton area. When air masses from the Pacific are impeded by slow–moving high pressure systems, temperature conditions sometimes become rather severe, hot in summer and cold in winter .

This climate supports shrub-steppe plant communities in the undisturbed areas. The topography is gently rolling hills and plateaus. The soil is sandy loam, is generally free from alkali, and has little hardpan. It is well suited to growing alfalfa, asparagus, beans, corn, grass hay, melons, mint, onions, peas, potatoes, winter wheat, and produces excellent pasture. Precipitation in the Pendleton area is seasonal. Only about 10 percent of the annual precipitation comes in the months of July–September. Most precipitation come from intense Pacific storms occurring from October through April. The Cascade Range west of the Columbia Basin reduces the amount of precipitation received in this area. This mountain influence is felt, particularly, in the desert area of the central part of the Columbia Basin. A gradual rise in elevation from the Columbia River to the foothills of the Blue Mountains again results in increased precipitation. This increase supplies sufficient moisture for productive crops such as wheat, vegetables, and livestock.

















Mean Daily Maximum














Mean Daily Minimum














Heavy Fog  -

Visibility 1/4 Mile





























Normal (Inches)















Normal (Inches)














Max. Monthly (Inches)














Year of Occurrence













JAN 1950

Maximum Inches in 24 Hours














Year of Occurrence













FEB 1994

Maximum Snow Depth (Inches)














Year of Occurrence













JAN 1957


Weather Explained[i]














4 - Soils

Soil types of the Umatilla Indian Reservation vary greatly ranging from wet Xerofluvents along river and stream floodplains to the rocky outcrops of the Blue Mountains. Between these soil extremes are large expanses of silt loam soils, in the lower elevations of the Blue Mountain foothills, which are conducive to the production of grain crops and hay. The higher elevations of the Blue Mountains contain various soil associations which are conducive to Douglas Fir, ponderosa pine and grand fir forest stands. Soils on the UIR were surveyed by the US Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service in 1988. This survey, Soil Survey of Umatilla County Area, Oregon, includes the UIR and continues to serve as the main source of information for soil identification; crop, rangeland and woodland productivity; building suitability and sanitary facility (septic) evaluation. The data and soil maps from this survey have been digitized into a Geographic Information System format for modern day use.

Due to the many specific types of soils occurring on the UIR, too many to list here, a general description is provided. Refer to the survey document for more detail.

The lower elevations of the Reservation, located in the western half, contain two core soil types that formed in loess, lacustrine sediment, and alluvium on hills, terraces and piedmonts. Pilot Rock and McKay are the predominant soil types. Pilot Rock soils are moderately deep, well drained soils that formed in loess overlying cemented alluvium; on fan terraces. Mckay soils are deep and well drained that formed in loess overlying alluvium; on fan piedmonts. These soils occur at elevations of 1,100 feet to 2,000 feet and are suitable for growing grain crops and hay.

The mid elevations also contain two core soil types that formed in loess, residuum and colluvium on the foothills of the Blue Mountains; Gwin-Gurdane-Rockly and Gurdane-Gwiny. Both soil types are shallow to moderately deep, well-drained soils that formed on ridges and hill slopes at elevations of 2,000 feet to 4,500 feet. These soils are suitable for hay and pasture.

The higher elevation soils, located on the eastern edge of the reservation, include the Umatilla-Kahler-Gwin and Tolo-Klicker associations. These soil types are moderately deep soils that formed in loess, volcanic ash and residuum on plateaus and hills of the Blue Mountains at elevations of 3,000 feet to 5,000 feet. These forest soils are suitable for growing grand fir Douglas fir, ponderosa pine and western larch. The following map depicts the diversity of soils found on the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

5 - Population and Demographics

Based on the 2000 US Census, the population within the reservation is 2,927. The growth rate occurring between 1990 and 2000 was about 17 percent which is higher than the state of Oregon’s during that same time period and slightly less than Umatilla County’s growth rate. Umatilla County’s growth rate of 19 percent between 1990 and 2000 was consistent with the growth rate for the Mid-Columbia Region, which includes Wasco, Sherman, Morrow and Umatilla Counties. Population growth for this region is projected to continue at a moderate rate over the next 20 years .

Table 1. Population Growth


                                    1990 Population                 2000 Population                  Change 1990-2000


UIR                                2,502                                      2,927                                           17%

                Umatilla Co.               59,249                                    70,548                                          19%

                Oregon                  2,842,321                            3,421,399                                               12%

Residential Population on the Umatilla Indian Reservation

The Reservation was home to nearly 3,000 people in the year 2000. The population on the Reservation was almost evenly divided between Indian and non-Indian residents. The total Reservation population grew by 17 percent during the decade of the 90s after a decline during the decade before; yet the total Native American population on the Reservation grew by 43 percent during the decade of the 80’s. The Native American population grew even faster off-Reservation than on-Reservation, due in part to the lack of housing and employment opportunities on the Reservation. The projected population in Table 2 was obtained from the “Revised CTUIR Renewable Energy Feasibility Study” (Oct. 2005). Using the 17 % growth rate from the last decade, the “Energy Feasibility Study” projects the Reservation will have over 4000 people residing on the Reservation by the year 2010. Of course, this projection depends on the availability of new housing and infrastructure on the Reservation.


Table 2.  Projected Umatilla Indian Reservation Population[i]







Umatilla Indian Reservation Population







Umatilla CountyTotal Population














     Non-Indian Total














*Based on 17% increase per decade.

[i]  CTUIR Renewable Energy Feasibility Study-

Population with Special Needs

The ability to respond and recover from a disaster will vary among jurisdictions. One important factor for consideration before a hazardous event occurs is having information aobut the number of people living within a jurisdiction with “special needs.” Three segments of the population that have special needs are older citizens, citizens with disabilities, and citizens living below the poverty level. Generally, the “special needs” population of a jurisdiction has a much harder time safely avoiding injury or damage from a hazardous event and recovering from a disaster than the general population. Tables 2, 3 and 4 provide information about UIR’s “special needs” population along with comparisons of two of those population segments with Umatilla County’s and the state of Oregon’s.

Older Population Comparisons

Depending on the type, intensity and the amount of warning before a hazardous event occurs, older citizens may have a greater degree of difficulty relocating before a disaster or keeping safe during a disaster. The time it takes to recover from a disaster may also take much longer as older citizens on fixed incomes do not have the necessary funds or are not physically able to make needed repairs.

Table 2 reveals that the percentage of people living on the Reservation in 2000 that were older than 65 is less than that of both Umatilla County and the state of Oregon. However, since 2000, the population over 65 will have grown to a level consistent with the county’s and state’s. This information reaffirms the trend that the older population segment will continue to increase.

Table 2.


                2000 Population between 62-65       2000 Population over 65           % of Total Population over 62



UIR                                    102                                                319 (10.9%)                                              14.4%

Umatilla Co.                 1,561                                             4,392 (12.3%)                                             14.5%           

Oregon                          75,486                                        438,177 (12.8%)                                              15%

CTUIR Population with Disabilities

In some cases, citizens with disabilities can be even more vulnerable to hazardous events than older citizens. Table 3 reveals that 18 percent of the population living on the Reservation was identified having a disability.

Table 3.


                                                Population 5 to 20 years       Pop 21 to 64 years          Pop 65 and over          Total


Total Population                                  787                                    1,595                                  319                         2,701

Total with Disabilities                            46                                       313                                  170                            529

Percent                                                     5.8%                                   19.6 %                             53.3%                         18%


Poverty Comparisons

Table 4 reveals that the Reservation has a higher percentage of citizens living below the federal poverty level than either the state of Oregon or Umatilla County. This segment of the population may also have greater difficulty relocating before a disaster or keeping safe during a disaster. Like the older population, the time it takes people with less disposable income to recover from a disaster is usually much longer as they may not have the necessary funds or be able to repay disaster assistance loans often available under a Presidential disaster declaration. Therefore, mitigation measures that help prevent damage or reduce damage from a hazardous event will provide the greatest benefit to this segment of the population.

Table 4.


                % of Total Population                                  % of Children under 18               % of People Over 65

                below the poverty level                                 below the poverty level                 below the poverty level



UIR                                      15.8%                                                 20.2%                                                 12.3%

Umatilla Co.                       13.0%                                                 16.0%                                                   9.0%

Oregon                                11.6%                                                  12.6%                                                  7.6%

6 - Land Use and Land Ownership

Land ownership on the UIR is a checkerboard of non-Indian and Indian ownerships. Approximately 44% (1195 acres) is comprised of Tribal trust lands held in trust by the US Bureau of Indian Affairs, approximately 49% (1321acres) is owned by non-Indian as “fee” land and approximately 7% (193 acres) is “fee” land owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

Existing Land Use

The best description for land use on the Umatilla Indian Reservation is rural. Most of the lands on the Umatilla Indian Reservation are used for agriculture on lower elevation lands and forestry in the upland, mountainous area. However, there is a quasi-urban area which begins at the Reservation’s western boundary, bordering the city of Pendleton, and ends at the eastern edge of the community of Mission. This area is the primary living area on the reservation. The area closer to the western edge of the Reservation contains some housing, the Elizabethan Manor (a residential care facility) and numerous industries. The community of Mission (See map below) contains most of the Reservation’s housing, schools, and Tribal and Bureau of Indian Affairs administrative office buildings. This area contains the Yellowhawk medical complex and CTUIR Fire and Emergency Services, both considered to be critical facilities.

A number of public facilities can be found in Mission such as wells that serve the community and the city of Pendleton, two water towers located on hills above the community, and an electrical substation. The Mission Market and grain silos are also located in Mission. The Mission Community area was established prior to any flood studies in the area and is located within the 500-year floodplain.

New and Future Development Trends

In the last few years, the CTUIR has increased its economic standing by building new commercial and industrial development on the plateau above the community of Mission. In 2007, the Tribe completed the construction of the Cayuse Industrial Park and the Public Safety Building. Much of this new development is located in the vicinity of the Interstate 84 and State Highway 331 interchange near the Wildhorse Casino and Resort and the Arrowhead Truck Stop A large Tribal Services Center building is being constructed on the east side of Hwy 331 north of the interchange. This new development is occurring away from flood and fog prone areas.

In 2008, the CTUIR has several expansion and construction projects underway including; expansion of the Wildhorse Resort and Casino, the Resort Hotel, Arrowhead Travel Plaza and Tribal Services Building. Future development plans include moving some of the government offices from their existing location in the Mission Community area (floodplain) to the new Tribal Services Building. Some of the old government office buildings would be removed.

Additional development will also continue to occur in the community of Mission. This remains the Tribe’s primary housing and community area. There are future plans to build a new medical complex building and to enlarge the school. These buildings will be located in the same Mission Community area but will be built with flood proofing standards and/or elevated for flood damage prevention. Another future construction project is a Tribal Wellness Center. The final location of the new wellness center has not been determined.

The map on the following page identifies existing, new and future development areas in the community of Mission and the Interstate 84 - Highway 331 commercial – industrial area. The remainder of the Reservation is primarily and will continue to be farm and forest lands.

7 - Housing

Where development is located and the type of materials used in building construction are important factors in determining the risks facing a jurisdiction. The housing-type and date of construction are also important factors in assessing the risk from certain hazard. Certain housing types tend to be less disaster resistant and warrant special attention. For example, mobile homes are generally more prone to wind and water damage than standard stick-built homes. Generally, older homes are more at greater risk from earthquakes than new homes where building codes have incorporated earthquake safety into standard building design. For these reasons, having information about the date and type of buildings found on the reservation will be useful in developing and prioritizing hazard mitigation actions.

Table 5 below provides a breakdown of housing types.

Table 5.


                                Single-Family                 Multi-Family           MobileHomes          Boat, RV, Van, etc.   Total Units


UIR                           73.8%                               1.2%                              24.4%                           0.6%                                  1,065     

Umatilla Co.             61.0%                             19.0%                               19.0%                         1.0%                                27,627            



Table 6 illustrates the years that housing was constructed within UIR and Umatilla County .



Table 6.   Housing -Year Built[i]


                                Pre-1939 - 1959                 1960-1979                            1980 – 2000


UIR                            24.4%                                   41.6%                                    34.1%

Umatilla Co.             38.0%                                   38.0%                                    24.0%


[i]  U.S. Bureau of the Census, Profile of Housing Characteristics 2000.

8 - Employment and Industry

An important aspect in making a jurisdiction more resistant to hazardous events and more resilient in its recovery begins with the identification of the key components of a jurisdiction’s economy and an understanding of how various hazardous events might disrupt the viability of that economy.

According to the Oregon Employment Department, the Mid-Columbia Region has experienced economic problems due to the downturn in the lumber, wood products and aluminum industries during the 1990s. To some extent, the region has been able to offset the loss of jobs in these industries by the addition of new manufacturing firms and regional distribution and service sector employment. The region’s proximity to the Portland area, the Southern Pacific, Union Pacific and Burlington Northern railroad lines that run across the western edge of the region and Interstate 84 provide good opportunities for the transportation of manufactured and agricultural goods. In addition, the region’s proximity to the Columbia River, the Cascade Mountains and the high desert terrain provide year-round sporting and tourism activities. Looking towards the future, healthcare services, manufacturing, retail trade, tourism, agriculture and food products, construction, lumber and wood products will continue to grow and develop to provide goods, services and work opportunities for area residents.

The Wildhorse Resort and Casino complex is the largest employer within the UIR and the second largest employer in Umatilla County. Obviously, it is very important to the UIR economy and has helped in improving the median household income of those living on the reservation. The labor force for the UIR is more that 1200 people.

Median household income is one indicator of the strength of a jurisdiction’s economy. Median household income can be used to compare economic areas as a whole, but does not reflect how the income is divided among area residents. Table 8 illustrates the median household income for the reservation and county as compared to the entire state of Oregon in the year 2000. All three jurisdictions have median household incomes below the national average, which is $41,433.


Table 7.   Median Household Income - Year 2000[i]


UIR                        $37,827

Umatilla Co.         $36,249

Oregon                   $40,916


[i]  U.S. Bureau of the Census, Profile of Economic Characteristics 2000.

The Importance of Energy to the UIR

As of 2000, there are 1,013 occupied homes and 52 vacant homes on the UIR. Most homes are heated by electricity, followed by utility (natural) gas and wood. Wood is a traditional energy source for the people of the UIR, and many still prefer wood heat to other means of heating their homes. The UIR is in close proximity to the Umatilla, Wallowa-Whitman, and Malheur National forests, and many of the tribal members gather their wood supply from these forests.

Residential electrical power needs on the UIR is estimated by utility providers at 5-6 megawatts, 1-2 for households and 3-4 for UIR operations. Peak demand for UIR is reported to be 3 megawatts, reached in both January and August. Umatilla Indian Reservation 2000 Residential Heating Sources
Wood 21%
Fuel Oil 8%
Natural Gas 23%
Electricity 37%
LPG 10%
Other fuel 1%

Commercial and Industrial Energy Use – Umatilla Indian Reservation

Electrical power service is provided by Umatilla Electrical Cooperative and Pacific Power. Electrical distribution and transmission infrastructure maps are shown in Figure III-2-1. Natural gas service is provided by Cascade Natural Gas distribution system that includes ½ -4” lines. Wildhorse Resort – is the largest energy user among UIR enterprises. The resort includes golf course, casino, and hotel. The casino and resort uses over 4 million kilowatts of electricity and over 100,000 natural gas therms.

Tamástslikt Cultural Institute – is the second argest energy user among UIR enterprises due to the need for climate control for archival holdings. This facility has undergone an energy efficiency study through Energy Trust of Oregon. The electric load has been significantly reduced.

Tribal Government Complex - Preliminary Design includes energy efficiency and conservation. Site located near substation.

Source: US Census Bureau, Census 2000. T, Therm = 100,000 Btu Wood assumes 2 cord/home/y with heating value of 17.1 MM Btu/cord LPG, liquefied petroleum gas

9 - Infrastructure on the Umatilla Indian Reservation


The Umatilla Indian Reservation owns and operates its own water system. The reservation’s water system serves the community of Mission and the Tribe’s resort area and the industrial-commercial development locate between the community of Mission and I-84. The source for the Tribe’s water system is five wells located within the system’s service area.

Water storage is provided by two 550,000 gallon water reservoirs (bolted glass-fused-to-steel tanks) that are 24 feet tall and 65 feet in diameter at an elevation of 1,390 feet. These reservoirs were constructed in 1995.

Wells numbers 1 through 4 primarily serve the community of Mission, while well number 5 serves the Wildhorse Casino and Resort, the golf course and RV park and the Tamastslikt Interpretive Center.

An intertie between the city of Pendleton and the CTUIR water system also exists. This allows water from the Pendleton to be supplied to the Tribe’s water system.


Since 1972, an existing sewer trunk line from the city of Pendleton to the community of Mission has been the primary source for removing wastewater from the area. Additional trunk lines and a lift station help remove wastewater from the Wildhorse Casino and Resort and the Arrowhead Travel Plaza back to the main line serving the community of Mission .

Electrical Power

The Bonneville Power Administration has a 35 Mile 230 kV line crossing the Reservation in a 100 foot wide right of way. This line is a regional transmission line that runs roughly east-west through the UIR. A long term agreement between the UIR and BPA has been established to accommodate this line. Electrical service is provided by Umatilla Electrical Cooperative and Pacific Power. Electrical distribution and transmission infrastructure maps are shown on the next page. The Umatilla Electric Cooperative (UEC) is a small, non-profit rural electric cooperative. As a preferred customer of the Bonneville Power Administration, Umatilla Electric Cooperative retains first right to federally owned hydroelectric resources. UEC serves approximately ½ the area of the UIR and has approximately 226 miles of line on the Reservation. UEC has a substation located at Mission. UEC primarily serves residents in the outlying areas of the Reservation. Umatilla Electrical Cooperative purchases most of the electricity they supply to the UIR and other local markets in Umatilla County from the northwest hydropower system. Pacific Power is a subsidiary of PacifiCorp, a large investor owned integrated electrical power company. Pacific Power serves customers with ½ the distribution lines on the Reservation. Pacific Power serves customers from the Round-Up Substation that tie into the Bonneville 230 kV line. Pacific Power serves the primary commercial load on the reservation including the Wildhorse Resort and Casino, RV Park, Arrowhead Travel Plaza, Gulf Course and Tamástslikt Culture Institute as well as many of the more densely populated residential areas .

Natural Gas

Cascade Natural Gas (CNG) is the sole provider of natural gas service on the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Major natural gas transmission lines run across the UIR in roughly a north south direction. The natural gas transmission lines are owned and operated by Williams of Tulsa, Oklahoma. There are three Williams owned natural gas transmission lines of 30, 22, and 6 inches that cross the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the latter a lateral to Walla Walla, Washington. Cascade Natural Gas also serves the Umatilla Indian Reservation with a distribution system that includes ½ -4” lines.

Chevron provides liquid petroleum products through two liquid fuel transmission lines of 6 and 8 inch and still owns a tank facility on the reservation that is currently not used due to environmental concerns.

Fuel Storage

There is only one commercial transportation fuel station on the Reservation, the Arrowhead Travel Plaza. The truck stop is owned by the CTUIR and is located along interstate I-84. The plaza provides gasoline, diesel and liquefied petroleum gas service and is diversifying to serve all travelers.

10 - Transportation

The UIR and Umatilla County rely primarily on automobiles and trucks as the main sources of transportation. Maintaining the highway and road system and to the reservation and within the reservation is essential to the area economy and general welfare of the residents of the UIR.

Interstate I-84 runs through the reservation beginning just east of the city of Pendleton to the reservation’s eastern boundary. The other roads on the Umatilla Indian Reservation are maintained primarily by Umatilla County and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The map below identifies road ownership on the UIR.

Other transportation modes that exist on the UIR are rail lines, pipelines used for transporting natural gas, and high voltage electrical lines used by the Bonneville Power Administration to transport electricity.


A high percentage of workers drive alone to work. As the area’s population increases, there will be an increase of automobile and truck traffic that will place additional stress on local roads, bridges and infrastructure. The impact of an emergency can disrupt automobile traffic and the local transit system and make evacuations difficult. This is particularly important where hazardous materials are being transported along Interstate 84 and nearby railroad lines. An accident involving hazardous materials could result in a dangerous situation. In addition, weather related hazards, such as severe winter storms, freezing fog and localized flooding can render roads unusable. A severe winter storm has the potential to disrupt the daily driving routine for the entire reservation and the people living and working on the reservation.

According to Census 2000 data, the average commute for workers in the Mid-Columbia Region is 19 minutes each way. The mode of transportation for most commuters is primarily automobiles .

Bridges and Highways

There are 20 bridges on or partially on the reservation (See map below). Most bridges are not seismically retrofitted, creating significant risk to the commuting population, the region’s economy, particularly in areas that may be at risk for earthquakes. Incapacitated bridges can disrupt traffic and exacerbate economic losses because of the inability of industries to transport services and products to clients. The bridges in the region are part of the interstate, state and local highway system. Some bridges are maintained by the Oregon Department of Transportation, while others are maintained by other jurisdictions. The following map identifies bridges and roads on the reservation.

11 - Critical and Important Facilities and Assets

Critical facilities are those facilities that are critical to government response and recovery activities immediately after a disaster. These facilities include but are not limited to police and fire stations, public works facilities, sewer and water facilities, hospitals, bridges and roads, shelters. Important facilities may not be critical during or immediately after a disaster but are important to the resiliency and recovery of the reservation from a disaster. Examples of important facilities to the reservation are the Wildhorse Resort and Casino, the Arrowhead Travel Center, and the Mission Market.

Critical Facilities During Times of Disaster

Government Complex
New Public Safety Building - Fire station – Police Station
Yellowhawk Health Clinic
Infrastructure Lifelines: Water, Telephone, Electricity, Natural Gas, Sewer Lines, Cell Phone Facilities, Main Transportation Routes

Historic and Cultural Sites

Tamastslikt Cultural Institute
Nixyaawii Charter School
St. Andrews Mission
Indian Cemeteries (3) [1 is off the Reservation near McKay Reservoir]
Veterans Memorial

Economic and Special Needs Assets

Elizabethan Manor [adult care facility]
Mission residential area
Cayuse residential area
Thornhollow/Gibbon residential area
Coyote Business park
Wildhorse Casino and Resort (hotel)
Grain Elevator
Mission Market
Tribal Government Offices
Arrowhead travel center, incl. Cody's Restaurant
Golf course
Mission Seventh-day Adventist School
Nixyaawii Charter School
Head Start
BIA Offices
Senior Center


Tribal Environmental Recovery Facility
Transportation corridors [I-84, railroad]
Natural Gas transmission pipelines
Sewer lines

Environmental Assets

Golf Course
fish facilities
wetlands ["the swamp"]
Wetlands Park
Indian Lake


[1]  Bureau of Reclamation:

[1]  Weather Explained.Com 2001 – Pendleton, OR -

[1]  Weather Explained  - Vol 5, 2001 Pendleton, Oregon ,

[1]  Information provided by the Tribal Planning Office

[1]  Oregon Hazard Mitigation Plan,

[1]  U.S Bureau of the Census, 1990 and 2000

[1]  CTUIR Renewable Energy Feasibility Study-

[1]   U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census

[1]  Ibid

[1]  U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 Census

[1]  Prepared by Patty Perry, CTUIR Planning Office

[1]  U.S. Bureau of the Census, Profile of Housing Characteristics 2000.

[1]  U.S. Bureau of the Census, Profile of Housing Characteristics 2000.

[1]  U.S. Bureau of the Census, Profile of Economic Characteristics 2000.

[1]  CTUIR Water and Wastewater Master Plan, 2006, pp. ES -1to ES-4

[1]  CTUIR Water and Wastewater Master Plan, 2006, p. ES -10

[1]  Source:

[1]  Page R5-6 Oregon Natural Hazards Workgroup, September 2002